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Friday, December 23, 2011

Architecture: Documenting software architectural patterns

Whatever the category of pattern, it is very useful to have a standard way of describing and documenting a pattern so that it can be easily referenced, compared with other patterns, and reused. Three important aspects of a pattern that need to be captured (Buschmann et al. 1996) are the context, problem, and solution.

The context is the situation that gives rise to a problem. 
The problem refers to a recurring problem that arises in this context. 
The solution is a proven resolution to the problem.

A template for describing a pattern usually also addresses its strengths, weaknesses, and related patterns. A typical template looks like this:
  • Pattern name
  • Aliases. Other names by which this pattern is known.
  • Context. The situation that gives rise to this problem.
  • Problem. Brief description of the problem.
  • Summary of solution. Brief description of the solution.
  • Strengths of solution
  • Weaknesses of solution
  • Applicability. When you can use the pattern.
  • Related patterns
  • Reference. Where you can find more information about the pattern.


- An example of documenting a pattern is given next for the Layered Pattern.
  • Pattern name: Layers of Abstraction
  • Aliases: Hierarchical Layers, Levels of Abstraction
  • Context: Software architectural design
  • Problem: A software architecture that encourages design for ease of extension and contraction is needed.
  • Summary: of solution Components at lower layers provide services for components at higher layers. Components may use only services provided by components at lower layers.
  • Strengths: of solution Promotes extension and contraction of software design.
  • Weaknesses: of solution Could lead to inefficiency if too many layers need to be traversed
  • Applicability: Operating systems, communication protocols, software product lines
  • Related patterns: Kernel can be lowest layer of Layers of Abstraction architecture. Variations of this pattern include Flexible Layers of Abstraction.
  • Reference: Hoffman and Weiss 2001; Parnas 1979.